This dataset contains RAW DATA from the RPCICA instrument.
Data Set Overview = The data from the ROSETTA PLASMA CONSORTIUM (RPC) Ion Composition Analyser (ICA) was submitted by Hans Nilsson for the RPCICA team.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ---------------------------------- = ROSETTA Mission Overview = ROSETTA Mission Objectives - Science Objectives = Mission Profile = Mission Phases Overview - Mission Phase Schedule - Solar Conjunctions/Oppositions - Payload Checkouts = Mission Phases Description - Launch phase (LEOP) - Commissioning phase - Cruise phase 1 - Earth swing-by 1 - Cruise phase 2 (and Deep Impact) - Mars swing-by - Cruise phase 3 - Earth swing-by 2 - Cruise phase 4 (splitted in 4-1 and 4-2) - Steins Fly-By - Earth swing-by 3 - Cruise phase 5 - Lutetia Fly-by - Rendez-Vous Manouver 1 - Cruise phase 6 - Rendez-Vous Manouver 2 - Near comet drift (NCD) phase - Approach phase - Lander delivery and relay phase - Escort phase - Near perihelion phase - Extended mission = Orbiter Experiments - ALICE - CONSERT - COSIMA - GIADA - MIDAS - MIRO - OSIRIS - ROSINA - RPC - RSI - VIRTIS - SREM = LANDER (PHILAE) - Science Objectives - Lander Experiments = Ground Segment - Rosetta Ground Segment - Rosetta Science Operations Center - Rosetta Mission Operations Center - Rosetta Lander Ground Segment - Lander Control Center - Science Operations and Navigation Center - Rosetta Scientific Data Archive = Acronyms ROSETTA Mission Overview = The ROSETTA mission is an interplanetary mission whose main objectives are the rendezvous and in-situ measurements of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, scheduled for 2014/2015. The spacecraft carries a Rosetta Lander, named Philae, to the nucleus and deploys it onto its surface. A brief description of the mission and its objectives can be found in the Rosetta Science Management Plan [RO-EST-PL-0001] and in papers [GLASSMEIERETAL2007]. A detailed description of the mission analysis can be found in the Consolidated Report on Mission Analysis [RO-ESC-RP-5500], the ROSETTA User Manual [RO-DSS-MA-1001], and the flight Operations Plan [RO-ESC-PL-5...000]. On its long way to the comet nucleus after a Launch by Ariane 5 P1+ in March 2004, the ROSETTA spacecraft orbits the Sun during one year until it returns to Earth for the first swing-by. The planet Mars is reached in February 2007, about 3 years after launch. In November 2007 a second Earth swing-by takes place and a third one in November 2009. Two asteroid fly-bys (2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia) are performed on the way to the comet. These two asteroids were selected at the Science Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the available candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interest and the propellant required for the correction manoeuvre. Around the aphelion of its orbit, which is 5.3 AU from the Sun, the spacecraft is in a spinning hibernation mode for about 2.5 years. The comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is reached about 10.5 years after launch, in May 2014. After a comet mapping phase the Surface Science Package, carried piggyback on the spacecraft are released for landing on the comet's surface for insitu measurements. The ROSETTA mission makes then a detailed study of the comet and its environment until a Sun distance of 2 AU is reached again after comet perihelion, end of the year 2015. Please note: ------------ The ROSETTA spacecraft was originally designed for a mission to the comet 46 P/Wirtanen to be launched in January 2003. Due to a delay of the launch a new comet (67P/Churyumow-Gerasimenko) had been selected by the Science Working Team on 3rd-4th April 2003 [RO-SWT-2004APR04]. The compliance of the design was checked and where necessary adapted for this new mission. Therefore in the following all the details and characteristics for this new mission are used. ROSETTA Mission Objectives = The scientific objectives of the ROSETTA mission can be considered from three main viewpoints: First of all, comets and asteroids are fully-fledged members of our solar system, which means, that they are objects of intrinsic interest to planetary scientists. The level of investigations conducted on these bodies is therefore far below that achieved for the other objects of the solar system. The study of the small solar-system bodies arguably represents the last major gap in the tremendous worldwide effort that has been made to reveal our planetary neighbours to us. The most important scientific rationale for studying small solar- system bodies is the key role-play in helping us to understand the formation of the solar system. Comets and asteroids have a close genetic relationship with the planetesimals, which formed from the solar nebula 4.57 billion years ago. Most of our present understanding of these processes has been obtained by studying meteorites, which constitute a biased sample of asteroidal material, and micrometeoroids, which may represent cometary grains processed by solar radiation and atmospheric entry. There is therefore a strong scientific case of studying cometary material in-situ, as it is surely more primitive than extraterrestrial samples. A third scientific aspect is the study of the physio-chemical processes, which are specific to comets and asteroids. In this respect, asteroids can provide information on impact phenomena, particularly on very large scale. However, the increase in cometary activity as these bodies approach the Sun undoubtedly represents one of the most complex and fascinating processes to be observed in the solar system. Science Objectives --------------------- The prime scientific objectives as defined in the Announcement of Opportunity [RO-EST-AO-0001] by the Rosetta Science Team can be summarized as: - Global characterisation of the nucleus, determination of dynamic properties, surface morphology and composition - Chemical, mineralogical and isotropic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus - Physical properties and interrelation of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus - Study of the development of cometary activity and the processes in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma (dust-gas interaction) - Origin of comets, relationship between cometary and interstellar material. - Implications for the origin of the solar system - Global characterisation of the asteroid, determination of dynamic properties, surface morphology and composition. Mission Profile = The ROSETTA mission profile results from the orbit of the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which has a perihelion close to 1.2 AU and an aphelion of about 5.7 AU, resulting in a period of about 6.5 years. A detailed description of the Mission Profile can be found in the Consolidated Report on Mission Analysis [RO-ESC-RP-5500], in the Rosetta Mission Calendar [RO-ESC-PL-5026] and in the RSOC Design Specification [RO-EST-PL-2010]. The injection of the spacecraft by a single Ariane 5 Launch with the so-called 'delayed ignition' of the upper stage, is not directly into the trajectory to the comet, because of the high spacecraft wet mass. Therefore the spacecraft has to be accelerated by a sequence of gravity assist manoeuvres at Mars and the Earth, in order to catch up with the comet's velocity at perihelion. However, this increases the mission duration to a total of nearly 12 years. The initially large distance to the comet at the perihelion of its trajectory is slowly decreasing after the third Earth swing-by. At the intersection of both orbits, the difference in orbit inclination and the residual relative velocity are diminished by the comet orbit matching manoeuvre at around 4.0 AU Sun distance. The range of the spacecraft-to-Sun distance is between 0.88 and 5.33 AU, defined by the minimum Sun distance during the first five years of the mission with the swing-bys at Earth, and the maximum Sun distance close to the aphelion of the comet's orbit. The evolution of the spacecraft distance to Earth over the mission time follows the profile of the Sun distance superimposed by an oscillation with an amplitude of 2 AU (+1,-1) and a period of about one year due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. This results in a range from 0 AU (Earth Departure and Swing-by) to 6.3 AU during the superior solar conjunction close to the spacecraft's aphelion (see Solar Conjunctions section below). After the second and third Earth swing-by ROSETTA crosses the asteroid main belt, which gives the opportunity of two asteroid fly-bys. The asteroids 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia, are encountered on 5 September 2008 and 10 July 2010 respectively. These two asteroids were selected at the Science Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the available candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interests and the propellant required for the correction manoeuvre. Between the major mission events, up to the comet rendezvous manoeuvre, the spacecraft performs long interplanetary cruise phases (up to 2.5 years) with several solar conjunctions (see Solar Conjunctions section below) and the power critical aphelion passage (last cruise phase). In order to reduce the ground segment costs and the wear and tear of spacecraft equipment during these phases, the spacecraft is put in 'Hibernation Mode'. Two types of hibernation modes are planned to be used: * 'Deep Space Hibernation Mode' above 4.5 AU: Inertial spin mode with a spin rate of 4 deg/sec. The spacecraft is almost entirely passive, except of receivers/ decoders, power supply, heaters and two Processor Modules with one RTU. * 'Near Sun Hibernation Mode' below 4.5 AU: 3-axes stabilised mode with the solar arrays Sun-pointing and the +X-axis Earth-pointing. Attitude control is performed with thrusters and star trackers, based on ephemerides; occasional solar array adjustments and ground contacts via the medium gain antenna (MGA). The final approach to the comet into its sphere of influence is prepared by the rendezvous manoeuvre (RVM-2), that matches the spacecraft orbit with the comet orbit. A subsequent sequence of approach manoeuvres, supported by optical navigation, takes the spacecraft closer and closer to the comet. After determination of the physical model of the comet by Doppler and optical measurements, the spacecraft is inserted into a global mapping orbit around the comet. The global mapping starts from orbital heights of 5 to 25 comet radii, depending on the actual size, shape and mass of the comet. Close observation of specific landmarks from altitudes down to one comet radius is planned. At least 80% of the illuminated surface shall be mapped. The very low velocity of the spacecraft in the comet orbit (few cm/s) requires a high performance accuracy of the propulsion system. The delivery of the Lander or Surface Science Package (SSP) is achieved from an eccentric orbit, which takes the spacecraft to a low altitude above the selected landing site. The Lander release is fully automatic according to a predefined schedule, and shall lead to touch down with minimum vertical and horizontal velocities relative to the local rotating surface. Upon the landing of the Lander, the spacecraft provides uplink and downlink data relay between the Lander and the Earth. After the Lander delivery the ROSETTA spacecraft escorts the comet until the perihelion passage and outwards again, until a Sun distance of 2 AU is reached end of the year 2015. The main scientific objective during this phase is the monitoring of the features of the active comet. Mission Phases Overview This section gives an overview of the major mission phases and main events in scheduled tables. A description of the individual phases is given in the following section. More detailed information can be found in the Rosetta Mission Calendar [RO-ESC-PL-5026], the Consolidated Report on Mission Analysis [RO-ESC-RP-5500] and the RSOC Design Specification [RO-EST-PL-2010] Mission Phase Schedule ----------------------- The following table shows a schedule of the mission phases, with start-end times (dd/mm/yyyy), duration (days) and distance to the sun (Astronomical Units). Some of the most important events within the mission phases are marked with an arrow (->). Further description of each mission phase is given below. . | Phase |Start Date|Main Event| End Date |Dur |SunDist(AU)| |=|||||=| |LEOP |02/03/2004| |04/03/2004| 3 | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Commissioning1 |05/03/2004| |06/06/2004| 94 | 0.89-0.99 | | ->DSM1 | |11/05/2004| | | | | ->DSM1 Touch-up| |16/05/2004| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 1 |07/06/2004| |05/09/2004| 91 | 0.89-1.04 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Commissioning2 |06/09/2004| |16/10/2004| 41 | 1.04-1.09 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Earth Swing-by1 |17/10/2004| |04/04/2005| 170| 0.99-1.11 | | ->Earth | |04/03/2005| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 2 |05/04/2005| |28/07/2006| 480| 1.04-1.76 | | ->Deep Impact | |04/07/2005| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Mars Swing-by |29/07/2006| |28/05/2007| 304| 0.99-1.59 | | ->DSM2 | |29/09/2006| | | | | ->Mars | |25/02/2007| | | | | ->DSM3 | |29/04/2007| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 3 |29/05/2007| |12/09/2007| 107| 1.32-1.58 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Earth Swing-by2 |13/09/2007| |13/12/2007| 92 | 0.91-1.32 | | ->Earth | |13/11/2007| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 4-1 |14/12/2007| |04/07/2008| 204| 0.91-1.92 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Steins Flyby |05/07/2008| |05/11/2008| 124| 1.93-2.24 | | ->Steins | |05/09/2008| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 4-2 |06/11/2008| |12/09/2009| 311| 1.36-2.26 | | ->DSM4 | |18/03/2009| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Earth Swing-by3 |13/09/2009| |13/12/2009| 92 | 0.98-1.35 | | ->Earth | |13/11/2009| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 5 |14/12/2009| |09/05/2010| 147| 1.03-2.23 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Lutetia Flyby |10/05/2010| |10/09/2010| 124| 2.23-3.14 | | ->Lutetia | |10/07/2010| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Rendez-vousMan1 |11/09/2010| |13/07/2011| 306| 3.15-4.58 | | ->RVM1 | |23/01/2011| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Cruise 6 (DSHM) |14/07/2011| |22/01/2014| 917| 4.49-5.29 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Rendez-vousMan2 |23/01/2014| |22/05/2014| 211| 4.00-4.49 | | ->RVM2 | |22/05/2014| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |NearCometDrift |22/05/2014| |21/06/2014| 30 | ~4.0 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Approach |22/06/2014| |19/10/2014| | 3.15-4.00 | | Far Approach | tbc | | tbc | ~30| ~3.8 | | Close Approach | tbc | | tbc | ~30| ~3.6 | | Trans.Global.Map| tbc | | tbc | ~15| ~3.5 | | Global Mapping | tbc | | tbc | ~35| ~3.5 | | Close Observ. | tbc | | tbc | ~23| ~3.2 | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Lander Delivery |20/10/2014| |15/11/2014| 27 | 2.97-3.15 | |->Lander Delivery| |10/11/2014| | | | |-----------------|----------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Comet Escort |16/11/2014| |31/12/2015| 411| 1.24-2.97 | |Low Activity | tbc | | tbc | tbc| tbc | |Moderate Increase| tbc | | tbc | tbc| tbc | |Sharp Increase | tbc | | tbc | tbc| tbc | |High Increase | tbc | | tbc | tbc| tbc | |Near Perihelion | tbc | | tbc | tbc| tbc | |----------------------------|----------|----------|----|-----------| |Extended Mission |01/01/2016| | tbc | tbc| tbc | '-------------------------------------------------------------------' Payload Checkouts ----------------- Payload checkouts are scenarios designed to allow Rosetta payload to make regular health checks, to activate mechanisms and to monitor trends through calibration tests. They are allocated in the mission calendar at regular 6-month periods during the first 10 years of the mission cruise phase. They are split into passive and active payload checkouts. Passive payload checkouts are entirely non-interactive and are run out of pass. Conditions for the passive checkout are that it will: a) not require any real time monitoring, b) run entirely off of MTL, c) not require s/c specific pointing other than to maintain listed constraints, d) produce minimal science data. Active payload checkout operations are executed both interactively and non-interactively in and out of pass. Conditions for the active checkout are that it will: a) limit the requirement for real time monitoring, b) run mostly from MTL, c) limit the requirement for s/c specific pointing beyond maintaining listed constraints, d) produce minimal science data. There is more flexibility during active checkouts and in addition payload use interactive passes to make any necessary memory patches and tests. .-------------------------------------------------------------------. | Name |Duration| Begin | End | Mission Phase | |-----------------|--------|----------|-----------|-----------------| | P/L Checkout 0 | 5d |28/03/2005| 01/04/2005| Earth Swing-by 1| | P/L Checkout 1 | 5d |30/09/2005| 04/10/2005| Cruise 2 | | P/L Checkout 2 | 5d |03/03/2006| 07/03/2006| Cruise 2 | | P/L Checkout 3 | 5d |25/08/2006| 29/08/2006| Mars Swing-by | | P/L Checkout 4 | 25d |27/11/2006| 21/12/2006| Mars Swing-by | | P/L Checkout 5 | 5d |18/05/2007| 22/05/2007| Mars Swing-by | | P/L Checkout 6 | 15d |17/09/2007| 01/10/2007| Earth Swing-by 2| | P/L Checkout 7 | 5d |04/01/2008| 08/01/2008| Cruise 4-1 | | P/L Checkout 8 | 25d |07/07/2008| 31/07/2008| Steins Fly-by | | P/L Checkout 9 | 5d |30/01/2009| 03/02/2009| Cruise 4-2 | | P/L Checkout 10 | 15d |21/09/2009| 05/10/2009| Earth Swing-by 3| | P/L Checkout 11 | 5d |04/12/2009| 08/12/2009| Earth Swing-by 3| | P/L Checkout 12 | 25d |10/05/2010| 03/06/2010| Lutetia Fly-by | | P/L Checkout 13 | 5d |03/12/2010| 07/12/2010| RV Manouver 1 | '-------------------------------------------------------------------' Solar Conjunctions/Oppositions ------------------------------- Other mission phases, which result from the orbit geometry and interfere with the above operational phases, are the solar conjunctions. Two types of conjunctions occur throughout the mission: * Solar Oppositions: The Earth is between spacecraft and Sun, resulting in a degradation of the command link to the spacecraft. * Superior Solar Conjunctions: Sun is between spacecraft and Earth, resulting in a degradation of the command and telemetry link to/from the spacecraft. Table below shows the solar conjunction phases throughout the mission with type, begin and duration of the conjunction and correspondant mission phase. The phases are defined as the periods, during which the Sun-SpaceCraft-Earth (SSCE) angle is below 5 degrees. .-------------------------------------------------------------------. | Type |Duration| Begin | End | Mission Phase | |---------------|--------|------------|------------|----------------| | Conjunction 1 | 48d | 21/03/2006 | 07/05/2006 | Cruise 2 | | Conjunction 2 | 39d | 08/12/2008 | 15/01/2009 | Cruise 4-2 | | Conjunction 3 | 50d | 22/09/2010 | 10/11/2010 | RV Manouver 1 | | Opposition 1 | 37d | 13/04/2011 | 19/05/2011 | RV Manouver 1 | | Conjunction 4 | 64d | 15/10/2011 | 17/12/2011 | Cruise 6 | | Opposition 2 | 47d | 30/04/2012 | 15/06/2012 | Cruise 6 | | Conjunction 5 | 67d | 31/10/2012 | 05/01/2013 | Cruise 6 | | Opposition 3 | 46d | 20/05/2013 | 04/07/2013 | Cruise 6 | | Conjunction 6 | 60d | 24/11/2013 | 22/01/2014 | Cruise 6 | | Opposition 4 | 28d | 25/06/2014 | 22/07/2014 | Approach | '-------------------------------------------------------------------- Mission Phases Description = Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) ----------------------------- Rosetta was launched by an Ariane 5/G+ in a dedicated flight (single launch configuration) from Kourou at 07:17:51 UTC 2 March 2004. After burnout of the lower composite, the upper stage together with the spacecraft remained in an eccentric coast arc for nearly 2 hours. Then the upper stage performed delayed ignition and injected the Rosetta spacecraft into the required escape hyperbola. After spacecraft separation from the upper stage, Rosetta acquires its three axes stabilised Sun pointing attitude and deploys the solar arrays autonomously. Ground operations acquire the down-link in S-band using the ESA network and control the spacecraft to a fine- pointing attitude with the HGA pointing towards Earth using X-band telemetry. Tracking and orbit determination are performed, the departure trajectory is verified and corrected by the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft. The launch locks of the Lander Philae are released at the end of the first ground station pass. Philae remains firmly attached to the spacecraft by the cruise latches until its release at the comet. Commissioning phase (1 and 2) ------------------- Commissioning starts three days after launch following the first trajectory correction manoeuvre. A Deep Space Manouver (DSM1) of 173 m/s is executed at perihelion. All spacecraft functions needed during the cruise to the comet, in particular for hibernation, are checked and the scientific payload is commissioned. Commissioning is done in two parts, as the New Norcia ground station must be shared with Mars Express and cannot be used by Rosetta from June to mid-September 2004. Nevertheless, for archiving purposes, the comissioning is considered a single phase. For more information refer to the following reports: [RO-EST-RP-3293] Consolidated Rosetta Payload Report of the Mission Commissioning Results Review, [RO-EST-RP-3226] Mission Commissioning Results Review Spacecraft Performance Report. Cruise phase 1 -------------- The scientific instruments are switched off while ground contact is not available. No payload operations are are done during this phase. Earth swing-by 1 ---------------- The actual Earth swing-by takes place on 4-Mar-05. The perigee altitude is 4290 km. The relative approach and departure velocity is 3.9 km/s. The phase ends one month after the swing-by, where any subsequent navigation manoeuvres are executed and the spacecraft is prepared for the next cruise phase to Mars. One passive Payload Checkout is scheduled end of March 2005. For more information refer to the following reports: [RO-EST-RP-3318] Payload Passive Checkout 0 Report [RO-EST-RP-3321] Rosetta Earth-Swingby #1 Payload Operations Report Cruise phase 2 (and Deep Impact) -------------------------------- After leaving the Earth, the spacecraft makes one revolution around the Sun, and in the second arc from perihelion to aphelion makes a swing-by of Mars. There is a solar conjunction for more than one month in April 2006 (see Solar Conjunctions section above). Two passive check-outs with non-interactive instrument operations for about 5 days are scheduled during the cruise to Mars. The NASA Deep Impact mission encounters comet 9P/Tempel 1 on 4 July 2005, which falls into the Cruise 2 mission phase. At around 06:00 UTC, the mother probe sends a 362 kg impactor into the nucleus with a relative speed of 10.2 km/s. Rosetta is in a privileged position for its remote sensing instruments to observe the event (80 million km distance, 90 degrees angle respect to the sun). Rosetta monitors Tempel 1 continuously (i.e. 24 hrs per day) over an extended period from 5 days before the deep impact to 10 days afterwards (29Jun-14Jul 2005). Compared to the original mission phase baseline, Rosetta spends two more months in Normal Mode instead of Near Sun Hibernation mode. For more information refer to the following reports: [RO-EST-RP-3341] Deep Impact Observations, Payload Operations Report [RO-EST-RP-3342] Passive Payload Checkout 1 Report [RO-EST-RP-3343] Interference Scenario Report Mars swing-by ------------- The mission phase begins one month before DSM2 of 65 m/s, which is performed near perihelion. The actual Mars swing-by takes place on 25-Feb-07. The minimum altitude with respect to the Martian surface is 200 km. The relative approach and departure velocity is 8.8 km/s. During the swing-by a communications black-out of approximately 14 min is expected due to occultation of the spacecraft by Mars. Furthermore the spacecraft is expected to be in eclipse for about 24 min. The phase ends one month after the swing-by. Two payload check- outs of about 5 days and a longer one of 25 days are scheduled during the cruise to Mars. Report will be provided later. Cruise phase 3 -------------- No check-outs are scheduled during the short cruise to Earth. Earth swing-by 2 ---------------- Daily operations start again around two months before Rosetta reaches Earth with tracking and navigation manoeuvres. The actual Earth swing -by takes place on 13-Nov-07. The perigee altitude is 13890 km. The relative approach and departure velocity is 9.3 km/s. The phase ends one month after the swing-by. In this phase the spacecraft gets very close to the sun (min distance 0.91AU). One payload checkout is also scheduled in this phase. Report will be provided later. Cruise phase 4 (splitted in 4-1 and 4-2) -------------- In this phase the spacecraft makes one revolution around the Sun. DSM3 of 129 m/s is scheduled near the aphelion of this arc in order to obtain the proper arrival conditions at the Earth. A solar conjunction takes place in January 2009 (see Solar Conjunctions section above), together with another two conjunctions of the Earth- spacecraft- Sun angle (Sun-Earth conjunction as seen from the spacecraft). In this phase the spacecraft gets very close to the sun (min distance 0.91AU). This Cruise phase has been splitted in two parts after the selection of the first Asteroid Fly- by which falls in the middle of this phase. Cruise 4-1 is before the fly-by phase, and 4-2 is right after. Two passive check-outs are scheduled, one during Cruise 4-1 and the second one during Cruise 4-2. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Steins Fly-By ------------- Rosetta does a first fly-by on 5 September 2008 to the asteroid 2867 Steins, discovered on 4 November 1969 by N. Chernykh. It is roughly 10 km in diameter, as determined by IRAS measurements. This is one of the two asteroids selected at the Science Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the available candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interests and the propellant required for the correction manoeuvre. This phase falls in the middle of the cruise phase 4, now splitted into 4-1 and 4-2. This fly-by phase starts 2 months before the fly-by and ends 2 months later. In parallel with the daily tracking with orbit determination and corrections, the scientific payload is checked out. The relative asteroid ephemeris is determined by spacecraft optical navigation. The aim is to pass the asteroid on the sunward side. The cameras and scientific payload point in the direction of the asteroid until after the fly-by. Science data are recorded in the mass memory. After the actual fly-by, when the Earth link via the HGA is recovered, the data recorded in the mass memory are transmitted to Earth. Orbit correction manoeuvres required to put the spacecraft on course are performed. Also one payload checkout is scheduled during this phase. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Earth swing-by 3 ---------------- Operations are essentially the same as for the Earth swing-by 2. The actual Earth swing-by takes place in Nov-09. The perigee altitude is 300 km. The relative approach and departure velocity is 9.9 km/s. Phase starts 3 months before the swing-by and ends 1 month later. Two short payload checkouts of about 5 days each are scheduled during this phase. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Cruise phase 5 -------------- Two passive check-outs are scheduled during this cruise phase. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Lutetia Fly-by -------------- The second of the fly-bys takes place on 10 July 2010 to the asteroid 21 Lutetia, discovered on 15 November 1852 by H. Goldsmith. It is roughly 100 km in diameter, as determined by IRAS measurements. This is the second of the two asteroids selected at the Science Working Team meeting on 11th March 2004 among all the available candidate asteroids, depending on the scientific interests and the propellant required for the correction manoeuvre. The fly-by phase starts 2 months before the fly-by and ends 2 months later. In parallel with the daily tracking with orbit determination and corrections, the scientific payload is checked out. The relative asteroid ephemeris is determined by spacecraft optical navigation. The aim is to pass the asteroid on the sunward side. The cameras and scientific payload point in the direction of the asteroid until after the fly-by. Science data are recorded in the mass memory. After the actual fly-by, when the Earth link via the HGA is recovered, the data recorded in the mass memory are transmitted to Earth. Orbit correction manoeuvres required to put the spacecraft on course are performed. Also one long payload checkout of 25 days is scheduled during this phase. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Rendez-Vous Manouver 1 ---------------------- The deep space manoeuvre is carried out when the spacecraft has reached a distance from the Sun around 4.5 AU on 23-Jan-11. One passive check-out is scheduled during this phase. One solar conjunction of 50 days and one solar opposition of 37 days happen during this phase.(see Solar Conjunctions section above). The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Cruise phase 6 -------------- The whole period is spent in Deep-Space Hibernation Mode (DSHM). Maximum distances to Sun and Earth are encountered during this period, i.e. 5.3 AU (aphelion) and 6.3 AU, respectively. During this phase, 3 superior solar conjuctions and 2 solar oppositions occur (see table above). The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Rendez-Vous Manouver 2 ---------------------- This phase starts 4 months before the rendez-vous manouver 2 The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Near comet drift (NCD) phase ---------------------------- The spacecraft reaches the comet on 22-May-14 at a distance of 4.0 AU from the Sun. A sequence of four rendezvous manoeuvres within 30 days reduce the relative velocity with respect to the comet from 780 m/s to 50 m/s. The spacecraft is in active cruise mode. During this phase Rosetta approaches the comet without observing the comet with the navigation camera (NAVCAM). The comet orbit is determined by a dedicated ground-based astrometric observation campaign. The errors in the estimated position of the comet can still be several tens of thousand km. The final point of the NCD phase is the Comet acquisition point (CAP) at 100000 km distance from the comet. The selection of this position depends on two factors: avoiding cometary debris (assuming there is any), and achieving good comet illumination conditions. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Approach phase -------------- -> Far Approach Trajectory (FAT) Far-approach trajectory operations start at CAP. During this phase the first images of the comet are obtained with the optical measurement system (NAVCAM, OSIRIS). After detection, knowledge of the comet ephemeris is drastically improved by processing the on- board observations. Image processing on the ground derives a coarse estimation of comet size, shape and rotation. The first landmarks are identified. The approach manoeuvre sequence reduces the relative velocity in stages down to 3.1 m/s after 30 days. The manoeuvre strategy is designed to: * retain an apparent motion of the comet with respect to the star background, * retain the illumination angle (Sun-comet-spacecraft) below 70 degrees, * avoid the danger of impact with the cometary nucleus in case of manoeuvre failure. The FAT ends at the Approach Transition Point (ATP), which is located in the Sun direction at about 1000 comet nucleus radii from the nucleus. During this phase the spacecraft is in active cruise mode with the navigation camera and some orbiter payloads switched on. -> Close Approach Trajectory (CAT) Close approach trajectory operations start at ATP and take 17 days. The spacecraft distance to the comet is decreased to 40 nucleus radii and the relative velocity falls below 1 m/s. The final point of this phase is called the Orbit Insertion Point (OIP) and is the point where the spacecraft starts orbiting the comet. The injection is performed by means of a hyperbolic orbit. Lines of sight to landmarks are processed together with on-ground radiometric measurements in order to estimate the spacecraft's relative position and velocity, the comet absolute position, attitude, nucleus angular velocity, gravitational constant and location of landmarks. -> Transition to Global Mapping (TGM) The transition to global mapping starts at OIP. A hyperbolic arc is used down to a distance to the comet of about 10-25 comet radii where a capture manoeuvre closes the orbit. The plane of motion is defined by the comet spin axis and the Sun direction. This plane is rotated slightly in order to avoid solar eclipses and Earth occultations. -> Global Mapping Phase (GMP) Mission scenarios have the objective of completing a science goal and require a trajectory and attitude profile which is driven by experiments selected to have priority in achieving this goal. The first scenario is the mapping scenario, during which at least 80 % of the comet surface is observed from a circular orbit with a radius in the range of 10-25 comet radii and the comet model increases in accuracy by evaluating the scientific results. -> Close Observation Phase (COP) In this second scenario detailed observations are made of up to five potential landing sites for the Rosetta lander from a distance of less than 1 nucleus radius. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Lander delivery and relay phase ------------------------------- The priority of this phase is the successful delivery of the lander to the surface of the comet. After the landing, the Rosetta orbiter is brought into a trajectory which is optimised such that the orbiter can act as a relay for the lander-ground communications. Note that the other experiments are also operating during this phase, regular science planning is performed. However, the operations of other experiments cannot interfere with the lander operations. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Escort phase ------------ -> Comet activity: low activity (LOW) Starting from 3.5 to 3.3 AU the comet develops a measurable coma. At this point spacecraft resources limit the on- board orbiter experiments to be fully operational and time-sharing by choosing priorities determines the operations. Over the interval of 3.3 to 2.6 AU the activity is low and more or less constant, but occurrences of outburst are possible. The nominal start of the scientific mission is 3.25 AU and spacecraft resources are capable of supporting full experiments operations. It is a mission preference that the lander is separated preferably before 3 AU while the comet is still relatively in-active. Therefore the lander separation and relay has to be executed as soon as a landing site has been selected. (Note that the lander team baselines a delivery at 3 AU and not before.) -> Comet activity: moderate increase (MINC) The overall activity is expected to show a steady and moderate increase. The completion of the science objectives drive the selection of the mission scenarios for this phase. -> Comet activity: sharp increase (SINC) A sudden and steep increase in activity together with a change in outgassing conditions are expected for this phase from previous observations. Special orbit requirements, like dust/gas jet crossings, are possible for mission scenario selection. -> Comet activity: high activity (HIGH) The production rate of gas and dust is expected to have a steep increase indicating a distinct change in outgassing conditions. The thermal conditions of the spacecraft for distances smaller then 1.4 AU may influence the science operations capabilities and time-sharing of the payload operations may be necessary. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Near perihelion phase --------------------- This phase is likely to show a steady increase of overall activity. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Extended mission ---------------- Nominally, unless a mission extension is agreed and if the spacecraft survives in the cometary environment, the mission ends at the perihelion pass after 11.5 years. If possible, however, the mission is continued. More risky or more time consuming scenarios may be executed. The phase has not yet occurred. The report will be provided later. Orbiter Experiments = ALICE ----- ALICE, an Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, will characterize the composition of the nucleus and coma, and the nucleus/coma coupling of comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This will be accomplished through the observation of spectral features in the extreme and far ultraviolet (EUV/FUV) spectral regions from 70 to 205 nm. ALICE will make measurements of noble gas abundances in the coma, the atomic budget in the coma, and major ion abundances in the tail and in the region where solar wind particles interact with the ionosphere of the comet. ALICE will determine the production rates, variability, and structure of H2O and CO, and CO2 gas surrounding the nucleus and the far-UV properties of solid grains in the coma. ALICE will also map the cometary nucleus in the FUV, and study Mars and the Rosetta asteroid flyby targets while en route to Churyumov- Gerasimenko. Instrument References: [STERNETAL2007] CONSERT ------- CONSERT (Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission) is an experiment that will perform tomography of the comet nucleus revealing its internal structure. CONSERT operates as a time domain transponder between the Lander which will be on the comet surface and the Orbiter will orbit the comet. A radio signal passes from the orbiting component of the instrument to the component on the comet surface and is then immediately transmitted back to its source, the idea being to establish a radio link that passes through the comet nucleus. The varying propagation delay as the radio waves pass through different parts of the cometary nucleus will be used to determine the dielectric properties of the nuclear material. Many properties of the comet nucleus will be examined as its overall structural homogeneity, the average size of the sub-structures (Cometesimals) and the number and thickness of the various layers beneath the surface. Instrument References: [STERNETAL2007] COSIMA ------ The Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser is a secondary ion mass spectrometer equipped with a dust collector, a primary ion gun, and an optical microscope for target characterization. Dust from the near comet environment is collected on a target. The target is then moved under a microscope where the positions of any dust particles are determined. The cometary dust particles are then bombarded with pulses of indium ions from the primary ion gun. The resulting secondary ions are extracted into the time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Instrument References: [KISSSELETAL2007] GIADA ----- The Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator will measure the scalar velocity, size and momentum of dust particles in the coma of the comet using an optical grain detection system and a mechanical grain impact sensor. Five microbalances will measure the amount of dust collected as the spacecraft orbits the comet. Instrument References: [COLANGELIETAL2007] MIDAS ----- The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System is intended for the microtextural and statistical analysis of cometary dust particles. The instrument is based on the technique of atomic force microscopy. This technique, under the conditions prevailing at the Rosetta Orbiter permits textural and other analysis of dust particles to be performed down to a spatial resolution of 4nm. Instrument References: [RIEDLERETAL2007] MIRO ---- MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter) is composed of a millimetre wave mixer receiver and a submillimetre heterodyne receiver. The submillimetre wave receiver provides both broad band continuum and high resolution spectroscopic data, whereas the millimetre wave receiver provides continuum data only. MIRO will measure the near surface temperature of the comet, allowing estimation of the thermal and electrical properties of the surface. In addition, the spectrometer portion of MIRO will allow measurements of water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and methanol in the comet coma. Instrument References: [GULKISETAL2006] OSIRIS ------ OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) is a dual camera imaging system operating in the visible, near infrared and near ultraviolet wavelength ranges. OSIRIS consists of two independent camera systems sharing common electronics. The narrow angle camera is designed to produce high spatial resolution images of the nucleus of the target comet. The wide angle camera has a wide field of view and high straylight rejection to image the dust and gas directly above the surface of the nucleus of the target comet. Each camera is equipped with filter wheels to allow selection of imaging wavelengths for various purposes. The spectroscopic and wider band infrared imaging capabilities originally proposed and incorporated in the instrument name were descoped during development. Instrument References: [KELLERETAL2006] ROSINA ------ ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) consists of two mass spectrometers, since no one technique is able to achieve the resolution and accuracy required to fulfil the ROSETTA mission goals over the range of molecular masses under analysis. In addition, two pressure gauges provide density and velocity data for the cometary gas. The two mass analysers are: * A double focusing magnetic mass spectrometer with a mass range of 1 - 100 amu and a mass resolution of 3000 at 1 % peak height, optimised for very high mass resolution and large dynamic range * A reflectron type time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a mass range of 1 -300 amu and a mass resolution better than 500 at 1 % peak height, optimised for high sensitivity over a very broad mass range Instrument References: [BALSIGERETAL2007] RPC --- RPC (Rosetta Plasma Consortium) is a set of five sensors sharing a common electrical and data interface with the Rosetta orbiter. The RPC sensors are designed to make complementary measurements of the plasma environment around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The RPC sensors are: * ICA: an Ion Composition Analyser, which measures the three- dimensional velocity distribution and mass distribution of positive ions; * IES: an Ion and Electron Sensor, which will simultaneously measure the flux of electrons and ions in the plasma surrounding the comet; * LAP: a Langmuir Probe, which will measure the density, temperature and flow velocity of the cometary plasma; * MAG: a Fluxgate Magnetometer, which will measure the magnetic field in the region where the solar wind plasma interacts with the comet; * MIP: a Mutual Impedance Probe, which will derive the electron gas density, temperature, and drift velocity in the inner coma of the comet. Instrument References: [CARRETAL2007] RSI --- RSI (Radio Science Investigation) makes use of the communication system that the Rosetta spacecraft uses to communicate with the ground stations on Earth. Either one-way or two-way radio links can be used for the investigations. In the one-way case, a signal generated by an ultra-stable oscillator on the spacecraft is received on earth for analysis. In the two way case, a signal transmitted from the ground station is transmitted back to Earth by the spacecraft. In either case, the downlink may be performed in either X-band or both X -band and S-band. RSI will investigate the nondispersive frequency shifts (classical Doppler) and dispersive frequency shifts (due to the ionised propagation medium), the signal power and the polarization of the radio carrier waves. Variations in these parameters will yield information on the motion of the spacecraft, the perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the propagation medium. Instrument References: [PAETZOLDETAL2007] VIRTIS ------ VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) is an imaging spectrometer that combines three data channels in one instrument. Two of the data channels are committed to spectral mapping and are housed in the Mapper optical subsystem. The third channel is devoted solely to spectroscopy and is housed in the High resolution optical subsystem. The mapping channel optical system is a Shafer telescope consisting of five aluminium mirrors mounted on an aluminium optical bench. The mapping channel uses a silicon charge coupled device (CCD) to detect wavelengths from 0.25 micron to 1 micron and a mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) to detect from 0.95 micron to 5 microns. The high resolution channel is an echelle spectrometer. The incident light is collected by an off-axis parabolic mirror and then collimated by another off-axis parabola before entering a cross- dispersion prism. After exiting the prism, the light is diffracted by a flat reflection grating, which disperses the light in a direction perpendicular to the prism dispersion. The high -resolution channel employs a HgCdTe IRFPA to perform detection from 2 to 5 microns. Instrument References: [CORADINIETAL2007] SREM ---- The Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is a monitor-class instrument intended for space radiation environment characterisation and radiation housekeeping purposes. SREM will provide continuous directional, temporal, and spectral data of high-energy electron, proton, and cosmic ray fluxes encountered along the orbit of the spacecraft, as well as measurements of the total accumulated radiation dose absorbed by SREM itself. This instrument is a facility monitor flown on several ESA spacecrafts. It is not considered as a PI (Principal Investigator) instrument. Instrument References: [MOHAMMADZADEETAL2003] LANDER (PHILAE) = The 100 kg Rosetta Lander, named Philae, will be the first spacecraft ever to make a soft landing on the surface of a comet nucleus. The Lander is provided by a European consortium under the leadership of the German Aerospace Research Institute (DLR) and the French Space Research Center (CNES). Other members of the consortium are ESA and institutes from Austria, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and the UK. A descripion of the Lander can be found in [RO-EST-RS-3020]. The box-shaped Lander is carried in piggyback fashion on the side of the Orbiter until it arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Once the Orbiter is aligned correctly, the ground station commands the Lander to self-eject from the main spacecraft and unfold its three legs, ready for a gentle touch down at the end of the ballistic descent. On landing, the legs damp out most of the kinetic energy to reduce the chance of bouncing, and they can rotate, lift or tilt to return the Lander to an upright position. Immediately after touchdown, a harpoon is fired to anchor the Lander to the ground and prevent it escaping from the comet's extremely weak gravity. The minimum mission target for scientific observations is one week, but surface operations may continue for many months. Science Objectives ------------------ It is the general aim of the scientific experiments carried and operated by the Rosetta Lander to obtain a first in-situ composition analysis of primitive material from the early solar system, to study the composition and structure of a cometary nucleus, reflecting growth processes in the early solar system, to provide ground truth data for the Rosetta Orbiter experiments and to investigate dynamic processes leading to changes in cometary activity. The primary objective of the Rosetta Lander mission is the in-situ investigation of the elemental, isotopic, molecular and mineralogic composition and the morphology of early solar system material as it is preserved in the cometary nucleus. Measurement of the absorption and phase shift of electromagnetic waves penetrating the comet nucleus will help to determine its internal structure. Seismometry and magnetometry will also be used to investigate the interior of the comet. The scientific objectives of the Rosetta Lander can be listed according to their priority as follows : 1. Determination of the composition of cometary surface and subsur face matter: bulk elemental abundances, isotopic ratios, minerals, ices, carbonaceous compounds, organics, volatiles - also in dependence on time and insolation. 2. Investigation of the structure and physical properties of the cometary surface: topography, texture, roughness, regolith scales, mechanical, electrical, optical, and thermal properties, temperatures. Characterization of the near surface plasma environment. 3. Investigation of the global internal structure. 4. Investigation of the comet/plasma interaction. The in situ measurements performed by the Rosetta Lander instruments will also provide local ground truth to calibrate Orbiter instruments. Lander Experiments ------------------ The Rosetta-Lander is equipped with a Sample Drill & Distribution (SD2) subsystem which is in charge to collect cometary surface samples at given depth and distribute them to the following instruments: CIVA-M (microscope (MS) & Infrared Spectrometer (IS)), the ovens, serving COSAC and PTOLEMY. Comet sample from pre-determinated and/or known (measured) depth are collected and transported by SD2 to well defined locations: * MS & IS viewing place * ovens for high temperature (800 deg C) heating * ovens for medium temperature (130 deg C) heating. * ovens with a window, where samples can be investigated by CIVA-M Here a description of all the instruments of the Lander: APXS: Alpha-p-X-ray spectrometer - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The goal of the Rosetta APXS experiment is the determination of the chemical composition of the landing site and its potential alteration during the comet's approach to the Sun. The data obtained will be used to characterize the surface of the comet, to determine the chemical composition of the dust component, and to compare the dust with known meteorite types. Instrument References: [KLINGELHOFERETAL2007] CIVA: Panoramic and microscopic imaging system - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Cometary Infrared and Visible Analiser (CIVA) is an integrated set of imaging instruments, designed to characterize the landing and sampling site, the 360 deg panorama as seen from the Rosetta Lander, all samples collected and delivered by the Drill Sample and Distribution System, and the stratigraphy within the boreholes. It is constituted by a panoramic stereo camera (CIVA-P), and a microscope coupled to an IR spectrometer (CIVA-M). CIVA is sharing a common Imaging Main Electronics (CIVA/ROLIS/IME) with ROLIS. CIVA-P will characterize the landing site, from the landing legs to the local horizon. The camera is composed of 6 identical micro-cameras, mounted of the Lander sides, with their optical axes separated by 60 deg. In addition, stereoscopic capability is provided by one additional microcamera, identical to and co-aligned with one of the panoramic micro- camera, with its optical axis 10 cm apart. CIVA-M combines in separated boxes, two ultra-compact and miniaturized channels, one visible microscope CIVA-M/V and one IR spectrometer CIVA-M/I, to characterize, by non-destructive analyses, the texture, albedo, mineralogical and molecular composition of each of the samples collected and distributed by the Drill Sample and Distribution System. Instrument References: [BIBRINGETAL2007A] CONSERT: Radio sounding, nucleus tomography - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Comet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radio wave Transmission (CONSERT) is a complex experiment that will perform tomography of the comet nucleus revealing its internal structure. CONSERT operates as a time domain transponder between the Lander which will be on the comet surface and the Orbiter will orbit the comet. A radio signal passes from the orbiting component of the instrument to the component on the comet surface and is then immediately transmitted back to its source, the idea being to establish a radio link that passes through the comet nucleus. The varying propagation delay as the radio waves pass through different parts of the cometary nucleus will be used to determine the dielectric properties of the nuclear material. Many properties of the comet nucleus will be examined as its overall structural homogeneity, the average size of the sub-structures (Cometesimals) and the number and thickness of the various layers beneath the surface. Instrument References: [KOFMANETAL2007] COSAC: Evolved gas analyser - elemental and molecular composition - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The COmetary SAmpling and Composition experiment COSAC is one of the two 'evolved gas analysers' (EGAs) on board the Rosetta-Lander. Whereas the other EGA, Ptolemy, aims mainly at accurately measuring isotopic ratios of light elements, the COSAC is specialised on detection and identification of complex organic molecules. The instrument can be described as an effort to analyse in situ, mainly with respect to the composition of the volatile fraction, cometary matter nearly as well and accurately as could be done in a laboratory on Earth. Due to the Rosetta Lander rotatability, the instrument can conduct analyses and investigations at different spots of the landing site and, aided by the drill, take samples for analysis from a depth up to at least 0.2 m. Instrument References: [GOESMANNETAL2007] PTOLEMY: Evolved gas analyser - isotopic composition - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The size of a small shoe box and weighing less than 5 kg, Ptolemy will use gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GCMS) techniques to investigate the comet surface & subsurface. The instrument concept is termed 'MODULUS' which is taken to mean Methods Of Determining and Understanding Light elements from Unequivocal Stable isotope compositions. The scientific goal of the PTOLEMY is to understand the geochemistry of light elements, such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, by determining their nature, distribution and stable isotopic compositions. Instrument References: [WRIGHTETAL2007] MUPUS: Measurements of surface and subsurface properties - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Multi-Purpose Sensor Experiment actually consists of four parts: 1. A penetrator, approximately 40 cm long, will be hammered into the ground about 1m apart from the Lander for measuring during the penetration process the mechanical strength of the material by means of a depth sensor and a densitometer. The penetrator is equipped with a series of temperature sensors and heaters for determining the temperature as a function of depth and insolation. 2. An accelerometer and a temperature sensor accommodated in the harpoon(s) 3. A four-channel infrared radiometer measures surface temperatures in the vicinity of the Lander. Density of the nearsurface (down to 20cm) material will be determined by measuring the absorption of gamma-rays emitted from a radioactive isotope mounted at the tip of the penetrator. Instrument References: [SPOHNETAL2007] ROLIS: Descent & Down-Looking Imaging - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The ROLIS Camera (Rosetta Lander Imaging System) will deliver first close-ups of the environment of the landing place of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the descent. After landing ROLIS will make high-resolved investigations to study the structure (morphology) and mineralogy of the surface. Instrument References: [MOTTOLAETAL2007] ROMAP: Magnetometer and plasma monitor - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Rosetta Lander Magnetometer and Plasma Monitor ROMAP is a multi- sensor experiment. The magnetic field is measured with a fluxgate magnetometer. An electrostatic analyzer with integrated Faraday cup measures ions and electrons. The local pressure is measured with Pirani and Penning sensors. The sensors are situated on a short boom. The deployment on the surface of a cometary nucleus demanded the development of a special digital magnetometer of little weight and small power requirements. For the first time a magnetic sensor will be operated from within a plasma sensor. A prototype of the magnetometer, named SPRUTMAG, was flown on space station MIR. Instrument References: [AUSTERETAL2007] SD2: Sampling, Drilling and Distribution Subsystem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem will provide microscopes and advanced gas analysers with samples collected at different depths below the surface of the comet. Specifically SD2 can bore up to 250 mm into the surface of the comet and collect samples of material at predetermined and/or known depths. It then transports each sample to a carousel which feeds samples to different instrument stations: a spectrometer, a volume check plug, ovens for high and medium temperatures and a cleaning station. SD2 will be accommodated on the flat ground-plate of the Rosetta, where it will be exposed to the cometary environment. Instrument References: [ERCOLIFINZIETAL2007] SESAME: Surface electrical, acoustic and dust impact monitoring - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The SESAME (Surface Electrical, Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring Experiments) electronics board and the integration of the components are managed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Space Simulation, Cologne. The results of SESAME will help in understanding how comets, have formed and thus, how the solar system, including the Earth, was born. Instrument References: [SEIDENSTICKERETA2007] GROUND SEGMENT = This section summarizes the roles and responsabilities for the Rosetta Ground Segment, which are defined in the Rosetta Science Management Plan [RO-EST-PL-0001] and the Lander Project Plan [RL-PL-DLR-97002]. The primary responsibility for developing the payload operations strategy for the Rosetta Scientific Mission is the Rosetta Science Working Team. The Rosetta Science Working Team (SWT) monitors and advises on all aspects of Rosetta which affect its scientific performance. Rosetta Ground Segment ----------------------- The Rosetta ground segment will consist of two major elements: the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre (RMOC) and the Rosetta Science Operations Centre (RSOC). Rosetta Science Operations Center - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Rosetta Science Operations Center (RSOC) is located at the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) in The Netherlands. The main task is to support the Rosetta Project Scientist in the planning of the science operations schedule and in the generation of coordinated operational sequences, the payload command sequences for all Rosetta instruments and their onward transmission to the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre (RMOC). In addition, the RSOC will prepare comet nucleus and comet coma models in collaboration with the Interdisciplinary Scientists, specialists from the Principal Investigator teams and the Lander teams. Rosetta Mission Operations Center - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Rosetta Mission Operations Center (RMOC) is located at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. The RMOC is responsible for the Spacecraft operations and all real time contacts with the spacecraft and payload, the overall mission planing, flight dynamics and spacecraft and payload data distribution. Rosetta Lander Ground Segment ------------------------------ The Rosetta Lander Ground Segment (RLGS) is made up of two operational teams. Due to the discussions when CNES joined the DLR consortium for developing the Lander, it was decided to divide the RLGS into 2 centers (see Lander Project Plan [RL-PL-DLR-97002]). These teams are responsible for the success of the Lander operations, to ensure that the Lander performs the science with regards to its status, and to give the data to the PI's and suppliers. Lander Control Center - - - - - - - - - - - - The Lander Control Center (LCC), located at DLR/MUSC in Koeln (Germany), in charge of Rosetta Lander operations during the flight segment definition, design, realization, assembly and tests. Science Operations and Navigation Center - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The Science Operations and Navigation Center is under CNES responsibility, located in Toulouse (France). It is responsible for the navigation and mission analysis aspects, including separation, landing and descent strategies and generation of the scientific sequences. Rosetta Scientific Data Archive -------------------------------- All scientific data obtained during the full mission duration will remain proprietary of the PI teams and the Lander teams for a maximum period of one year after they have been received from ESOC. After this period, the scientific data products from the mission have to be submitted to RSOC in a reduced and calibrated form such that they can be used by the scientific community. RSOC will prepare the Rosetta Scientific Data Archive within one year of the receipt of the complete data sets from the individual Rosetta science investigations. Acronyms -------- For more acronyms refer to Rosetta Project Glossary [RO-EST-LI-5012] AU Astronomical Unit CAP Comet Acquisition Point CAT Close Approach Trajectory CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales COP Close Observation Phase DLR German Aerospace Center DSM Deep Space Manouver ESA European Space Agency ESOC European Space Operations Center ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Center EUV Extreme UltraViolet FAT Far approach trajectory FUV Far UltraViolet GCMS Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry GMP Global Mapping Phase HGA High Gain Antenna HgCdTe Mercury Cadmium Telluride HIGH High Activity Phase (Escort Phase) HK HouseKeeping IRAS InfraRed Astronomical Satellite IRFPA Infrared Focal Plane Array IS Infrared Spectrometer LCC Lander Control Center LEOP Launch and Early Orbit Phase LOW Low Activity Phase (Escort Phase) MINC Moderate Increase Phase (Escort Phase) MGA Medium Gain Antenna MLI Multi Layer Insulation MS Microscope NNO New Norcia ground station OIP Orbit Insertion Point PI Principal Investigator P/L PayLoad RMOC Rosetta Mission Operations Center RLGS Rosetta Lander Ground Segment RL Rosetta Lander RO Rosetta Orbiter RSOC Rosetta Science Operations Center RVM Rendez-vous Manouver S/C SpaceCraft SINC Sharp Increase Phase (Escort Phase) SONC Science Operations and Navigation Center SSP Surface Science Package STR Star TRacker SWT Science Working Team TGM Transition to global mapping