A dataset provided by the European Space Agency

Mission GIOTTO
URL ftp://npsa01.esac.esa.int/pub/mirror/GIOTTO/HMC/GIO-C-HMC-3-RDR-HALLEY-V1.0
DOI https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-s11mti2
Abstract The GIO-C-HMC-3-RDR-HALLEY-V1.0 data set contains the calibrated images of the Halley Multi-Color (HMC) camera on board of the GIOTTO spacecraft of the European Space Agency. The data were obtained during the GIOTTO flyby on comet Halley in March 1986
Description Data Set Overview = In total 2304 images were returned on encounter night between 20:54 and 00:03 UT. Of these images, a total of 2017 are present in the data set submitted to IHW. Images taken in 'photometer' mode have not been submitted. These data were obtained by using the spin of the spacecraft to scan the sky while the CCD remained unclocked. They therefore have one dimensional spatial information but each pixel contains the integrated intensity from some portion (depending upon the exposure time) of an annulus on the sky. These data would be useful for this purpose (particularly when taken through the narrow-band filters because of the significantly higher exposure time) were it not for the stray light entering the optics of the camera when HMC was on the sunward side of the spacecraft. No effort has been made to reduce this data and its scientific usefulness is assumed to be negligible. The last three image sets returned in multi-detector mode (MDM) immediately prior to the power disturbance which terminated operations before closest approach are also excluded. Image set 3504 does contain useful data but is corrupted and requires manual reduction. This task has not been completed at this time. Image sets 3505 and 3506 are also corrupted and probably do not contain useful image data. Seven images taken at the beginning of the encounter sequence (image ids 674 to 680) were not correctly converted by the telemetry conversion routine. These images are not currently in the HMC database system and are therefore not included in the IHW data set. The similarity between these data and the subsequent data probably ensures that, for scientific evaluation of HMC data, their omission is of little or no importance. One image (3142) has been omitted because it does not have an associated header. Available data The total numbers of images taken in each superpixel format (SPF) in the IHW data set are shown in ...
Instrument HMC
Temporal Coverage 1986-03-13T20:54:34Z/1986-03-14T00:02:35Z
Version V1.0
Mission Description Mission Overview In 1978,ESA was invited by NASA to plan a joint mission consisting of a comet Halley fly-by in November 1985 and a rendezvous with comet Tempel 2 in 1988. The mission comprised an American main spacecraft which would carry a European probe. The main spacecraft, with its array of sophisticated cameras and experiments, would complete a fly-by of comet Halley at a safe distance. Shortly before fly-by, the probe would be released towards the nucleus to make detailed in-situ observations in the innermost coma. In January 1980, however, it became clear that financial support for the Halley Fly-by/Tempel 2 Rendezvous mission could not be secured in the USA. By that time the interest of European scientists had built up such momentum that ESA considered the possibility of a purely European mission. The support for a fly-by mission was strong in Europe and went far beyond the small section of scientists specialised in cometary research. A fly-by of comet Halley was suggested to ESA by the scientific community in February 1980. Rather than having the American spacecraft deliver the probe to the comet as in the earlier concept, the Europeans proposed that the capabilities of the small probe be increased by building an independent, self-sufficient spacecraft to be launched using the European Ariane rocket. The limited time available for development and the small financial resources made it advisable to use a spin-stabilised spacecraft derived from the European Earth orbiting spacecraft Geos. This proposal was studied by ESA in the first half of 1980. The European mission to comet Halley was named Giotto after the Italian painter Giotto di Bondone who depicted comet Halley as the `Star of Bethlehem' in one of his frescoes in the Scrovegni chapel in Padua in 1304. The Giotto mission was finally approved as ESA's first interplanetary mission on 7 July 1980. An Announcement of Opportunity was issued ...
Date Published 2004-03-26
Publisher And Registrant European Space Agency
Credit Guidelines European Space Agency, 2004-03-26, GIO-C-HMC-3-RDR-HALLEY, V1.0. https://doi.org/10.5270/esa-s11mti2